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House see List of U. Like all other states, Montana has two senators. Incorporated places consist of 52 cities, 75 towns, and two consolidated city-counties.
The design was only slightly modified after Montana became a state and adopted it as the Great Seal of the State of Montana, enacted by the legislature in The state song was not composed until 21 years after statehood, when a musical troupe led by Joseph E.
Howard stopped in Butte in September A former member of the troupe who lived in Butte buttonholed Howard at an after-show party, asking him to compose a song about Montana and got another partygoer, the city editor for the Butte Miner newspaper, Charles C.
The two men worked up a basic melody and lyrics in about a half-hour for the entertainment of party guests, then finished the song later that evening, with an arrangement worked up the following day.
Montana schoolchildren played a significant role in selecting several state symbols. The state tree, the ponderosa pine, was selected by Montana schoolchildren as the preferred state tree by an overwhelming majority in a referendum held in However, the legislature did not designate a state tree until , when the Montana Federation of Garden Clubs, with the support of the state forester, lobbied for formal recognition.
Various community civic groups also played a role in selecting the state grass and the state gemstones. The legislature in turn adopted this recommendation by a wide margin.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 29 January This article is about the U. For other uses, see Montana disambiguation.
For other uses, see Montanan disambiguation. State of the United States of America. Regional designations of Montana , Ecological systems of Montana , List of mountain ranges in Montana , and List of forests in Montana.
List of rivers of Montana and List of lakes in Montana. List of Montana state parks. List of military installations in Montana. Admission to the Union and List of U.
Religion in Montana religion percent Protestant. Montana locations by per capita income. List of radio stations in Montana and List of television stations in Montana.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Political party strength in Montana and Elections in Montana.
List of cities and towns in Montana and List of counties in Montana. List of Montana state symbols. The state motto appears on a ribbon. Montana portal United States portal.
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The Magazine of Western History. David , "I. Extinction, Cretaceous", in Currie, Philip J. Montana Historical Society Press. Gathering Noise From My Life: University of Iowa Press.
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Beaver, Janice Cheryl Retrieved March 27, Bergman, Brian February 16, Retrieved April 8, Boswell, Evelyn October 5, Montana State University News Service.
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Archived from the original PDF on September 20, In John Brady; Charles J. Geological Society of America. From Northwest Peaks to Deadhorse Badlands.
Mining and Scientific Press. Retrieved August 1, How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. The Montana State Constitution: Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Traveling the Lewis and Clark Trail. A Pleasant Stroll to Everest. Labor and World War I, — French, Brett March—April Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved April 10, French, Brett July 29, Retrieved April 7, Graetz, Rick; Clemenz, Bob Gravlee, Sarah January 3, Retrieved April 27, Glacier Natural History Association.
Heilprin, Angelo; Heilprin, Louis, eds. Historical Gazetteer of the United States. Holden, Stephen March 29, Retrieved April 30, Stories of the Land PDF.
Howard, Joseph Kinsey Montana-High, Wide and Handsome. The making of the Crow Nation in America, New York, New York: Hurlbut, Brian; Davis, Seabring On the River With Lewis and Clark.
Jewell, Judy; McRae, Bill Body July 4, Retrieved April 15, Kaush, Arha; Thompson, Jr. The Endangered Species Act and Federalism: Kittredge, William; Krauzer, Steven M.
Another Look at Granville Stuart". Vegetation Map and Type Descriptions. Montana Natural Heritage Program. Retrieved July 29, Kugler, Eileen Gale Innovative Voices in Education: Paul; Simons, Gary F.
Languages of the World". Journal of Economic History. Lincoln, Marga April 19, Retrieved May 13, University of Oklahoma Press.
In Kennedy, Michael S. Madej, Ed; Jones, Cedron September 14, Natural Resource Information System. A History of Two Centuries. University of Washington Press.
University of Nebraska Press. Retrieved May 25, McKee, Jennifer August 27, Milner II, Clyde A. As Big as the West: The Pioneer Life of Granville Stuart.
Hydrologic Events and Surface-Water Resources. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper Years of War and Hysteria, —". The Journal of American History.
Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Streamside Communities. Norris, Tina; Vines, Paula L. Ottum, Bob January 29, Retrieved April 20, Parry, Ellis Roberts Peavey, Linda; Smith, Ursula Reviewed by Nykolaiszyn, Juliana M.
Robbins, Jim August 17, Retrieved March 29, Geological Survey Professional Paper Sanders, Wilbur Edgerton Montana, Organization, Name and Naming: Ruckman, Shannon May 11, Archived from the original on January 18, Scandale, Maria August 18, Indian Country Today Media Network.
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Archived from the original on April 29, Thackeray, Lorna October 17, United States Forest Service Final Environmental Impact Statement: Department of the Interior.
Graphic Arts Center Pub. Werner, Bret; Welply, Michael First Special Service Force — Sedition and Free Speech in the American West.
University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved April 14, Retrieved April 22, Montana Shakespeare in the Parks. Archived from the original on June 9, Montana Secretary of State.
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Montana Department of Tourism. Retrieved May 10, Remove ads Ads by TrafficFactory.
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BLK Revolt Green. BLK Copper Green. In , the non-Indian population of Montana Territory was 20, As white settlers began populating Montana from the s through the s, disputes with Native Americans ensued, primarily over land ownership and control.
The treaty was ratified in More than a dozen additional military outposts were established in the state. Pressure over land ownership and control increased due to discoveries of gold in various parts of Montana and surrounding states.
The last recorded conflict in Montana between the U. Indian survivors who had signed treaties were generally required to move onto reservations.
Simultaneously with these conflicts, bison , a keystone species and the primary protein source that Native people had survived on for centuries were being destroyed.
Some estimates say there were over 13 million bison in Montana in Davis started a major open range cattle operation in Fergus County in Operated by the National Park Service , it is a 1,acre 7.
However, the railroad played a major role in sparking tensions with Native American tribes in the s. Jay Cooke , the NPR president launched major surveys into the Yellowstone valley in , and which were challenged forcefully by the Sioux under chief Sitting Bull.
These clashes, in part, contributed to the Panic of , a financial crisis that delayed construction of the railroad into Montana.
Under Territorial Governor Thomas Meagher , Montanans held a constitutional convention in in a failed bid for statehood.
A second constitutional convention was held in Helena in that produced a constitution ratified 3: For political reasons, Congress did not approve Montana statehood until Congress approved Montana statehood in February and President Grover Cleveland signed an omnibus bill granting statehood to Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Washington once the appropriate state constitutions were crafted.
In July , Montanans convened their third constitutional convention and produced a constitution accepted by the people and the federal government.
On November 8, President Benjamin Harrison proclaimed Montana the forty-first state in the union. The first state governor was Joseph K.
The Homestead Act of provided free land to settlers who could claim and "prove-up" acres 0. Montana did not see a large influx of immigrants from this act because acres was usually insufficient to support a family in the arid territory.
The Desert Land Act of was passed to allow settlement of arid lands in the west and allotted acres 2. After three years, a fee of one dollar per acre would be paid and the land would be owned by the settler.
This act brought mostly cattle and sheep ranchers into Montana, many of whom grazed their herds on the Montana prairie for three years, did little to irrigate the land and then abandoned it without paying the final fees.
In the early s, James J. Hill of the Great Northern began promoting settlement in the Montana prairie to fill his trains with settlers and goods.
Other railroads followed suit. In , Congress passed the Enlarged Homestead Act that expanded the amount of free land from to acres 0.
In addition, Montana was going through a temporary period of higher-than-average precipitation. He was the Joad of a [half] century ago, swarming into a hostile land: The honyocker was farmer, spinster, deep-sea diver; fiddler, physician, bartender, cook.
He lived in Minnesota or Wisconsin, Massachusetts or Maine. However, farmers faced a number of problems. Massive debt was one.
Weather and agricultural conditions are much harsher and drier west of the th meridian. Many people left, and half the banks in the state went bankrupt as a result of providing mortgages that could not be repaid.
By , homesteaders filed claims on over five million acres, and by , over 93 million acres were farmed. Her actions were widely criticized in Montana, where public support for the war was strong, and wartime sentiment reached high levels of patriotism among many Montanans.
This represented a manpower contribution to the war that was 25 percent higher than any other state on a per capita basis.
Approximately Montanans died as a result of the war and were wounded, also higher than any other state on a per capita basis.
The war created a boom for Montana mining, lumber and farming interests as demand for war materials and food increased. In June , the U.
Congress passed the Espionage Act of which was later extended by the Sedition Act of , enacted in May The Montana Act led to the arrest of over individuals and the conviction of 78, mostly of German or Austrian descent.
Over 40 spent time in prison. In May , then-Governor Brian Schweitzer posthumously issued full pardons for all those convicted of violating the Montana Sedition Act.
The Montanans who opposed U. Stewart as well as local "loyalty committees. War sentiment was complicated by labor issues.
The Anaconda Copper Company , which was at its historic peak of copper production,  was an extremely powerful force in Montana, but also faced criticism and opposition from socialist newspapers and unions struggling to make gains for their members.
He gave some speeches with inflammatory anti-war rhetoric. On August 1, , he was dragged from his boarding house by masked vigilantes , and hanged from a railroad trestle, considered a lynching.
The Council also passed rules limiting public gatherings and prohibiting the speaking of German in public. In the wake of the legislative action in , emotions rose.
Wheeler and several District Court Judges who hesitated to prosecute or convict people brought up on charges were strongly criticized.
Wheeler was brought before the Council of Defense, though he avoided formal proceedings, and a District Court judge from Forsyth was impeached.
There were burnings of German-language books and several near-hangings. The prohibition on speaking German remained in effect into the early s.
Complicating the wartime struggles, the Influenza epidemic claimed the lives of over 5, Montanans. This caused great hardship for farmers, ranchers, and miners.
The wheat farms in eastern Montana make the state a major producer; the wheat has a relatively high protein content and thus commands premium prices.
Another 40,plus Montanans entered the armed forces in the first year following the declaration of war, and over 57, joined up before the war ended.
At least Montanans died in the war. S-Canadian commando-style force that trained at Fort William Henry Harrison for experience in mountainous and winter conditions before deployment.
During the war, about 30 Japanese Fu-Go balloon bombs were documented to have landed in Montana, though no casualties nor major forest fires were attributed to them.
In , Jeannette Rankin was again elected to Congress. Hers was the only vote against the war, and in the wake of public outcry over her vote, Rankin required police protection for a time.
Other pacifists tended to be those from "peace churches" who generally opposed war. Many individuals claiming conscientious objector status from throughout the U.
However, the battleship was never completed. Montana is the only one of the first 48 states lacking a completed battleship being named for it.
Alaska and Hawaii have both had nuclear submarines named after them. Montana is the only state in the union without a modern naval ship named in its honor.
This will be the second commissioned warship to bear the name Montana. The first operational missiles were in-place and ready in early In late missiles assigned to the st Strategic Missile Wing would play a major role in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Kennedy said the Soviets backed down because they knew he had an "ace in the hole," referring directly to the Minuteman missiles in Montana.
According to the Census, Montana has a larger Native American population numerically and percentage-wise than most U. Although the state ranked 45th in population according to the U.
Census , it ranked 19th in total native people population. Big Horn, Glacier, and Roosevelt. While the largest European-American population in Montana overall is German, pockets of significant Scandinavian ancestry are prevalent in some of the farming-dominated northern and eastern prairie regions, parallel to nearby regions of North Dakota and Minnesota.
Farmers of Irish, Scots, and English roots also settled in Montana. The historically mining-oriented communities of western Montana such as Butte have a wider range of European-American ethnicity; Finns , Eastern Europeans and especially Irish settlers left an indelible mark on the area, as well as people originally from British mining regions such as Cornwall , Devon and Wales.
The nearby city of Helena, also founded as a mining camp, had a similar mix in addition to a small Chinatown. Hutterite population with several colonies spread across the state.
Beginning in the mids, the state also saw an influx of Amish , who relocated to Montana from the increasingly urbanized areas of Ohio and Pennsylvania.
The Chinese in Montana, while a low percentage today, have historically been an important presence. About — Chinese miners were in the mining areas of Montana by , and in English is the official language in the state of Montana, as it is in many U.
According to the U. There were about 13, Spanish-language speakers in the state 1. These included a Native American language 64 percent , German 4 percent , Spanish 3 percent , Russian 1 percent , and Chinese less than 0.
According to the Pew Forum, the religious affiliations of the people of Montana are as follows: The largest denominations in Montana as of were the Catholic Church with , adherents, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 46, adherents, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 38, adherents, and non-denominational Evangelical Protestant with 27, adherents.
Approximately 66, people of Native American heritage live in Montana. Stemming from multiple treaties and federal legislation, including the Indian Appropriations Act , the Dawes Act , and the Indian Reorganization Act , seven Indian reservations, encompassing eleven federally recognized tribal nations, were created in Montana.
A twelfth nation, the Little Shell Chippewa is a "landless" people headquartered in Great Falls ; it is recognized by the state of Montana but not by the U.
The University of Montana "was the first to establish dual admission agreements with all of the tribal colleges and as such it was the first institution in the nation to actively facilitate student transfer from the tribal colleges" .
Montana is a relative hub of beer microbrewing , ranking third in the nation in number of craft breweries per capita in Ecotaxes on resource extraction are numerous.
A state severance tax on coal which varied from 20 to 30 percent was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in Commonwealth Edison Co.
Montana , U. Tourism is also important to the economy with over ten million visitors a year to Glacier National Park , Flathead Lake , the Missouri River headwaters, the site of the Battle of Little Bighorn and three of the five entrances to Yellowstone National Park.
Montana has no sales tax. In Montana, household goods are exempt from property taxes. However, property taxes are assessed on livestock, farm machinery, heavy equipment, automobiles, trucks, and business equipment.
The taxable value is then multiplied by the mill levy established by various taxing jurisdictions—city and county government, school districts and others.
The Montana University System consists of:. The Montana Territory was formed on April 26, , when the U. The first formal school on record was at Fort Owen in Bitterroot valley in The students were Indian children and the children of Fort Owen employees.
The first school term started in early winter and only lasted until February Classes were taught by Mr. One of the first teachers at the school was Sarah Raymond.
She was a year-old woman who had traveled to Virginia City via wagon train in With the help of an assistant teacher, Mrs.
Farley,  Raymond was responsible for teaching 50 to 60 students each day out of the 81 students enrolled at the school. There were no textbooks used in the school.
In their place was an assortment of books brought in by various emigrants. Many well-known artists, photographers and authors have documented the land, culture and people of Montana in the last years.
Painter and sculptor Charles Marion Russell , known as "the cowboy artist" created more than 2, paintings of cowboys, Native Americans, and landscapes set in the Western United States and in Alberta , Canada.
Russell Museum Complex located in Great Falls, Montana , houses more than 2, Russell artworks, personal objects, and artifacts. Pioneering feminist author, film-maker, and media personality Mary MacLane attained international fame in with her memoir of three months in her life in Butte , The Story of Mary MacLane.
She referred to Butte throughout the rest of her career and remains a controversial figure there for her mixture of criticism and love for Butte and its people.
Evelyn Cameron , a naturalist and photographer from Terry documented early 20th century life on the Montana prairie, taking startlingly clear pictures of everything around her: Many notable Montana authors have documented or been inspired by life in Montana in both fiction and non-fiction works.
Baseball is the minor-league sport with the longest heritage in the state, and Montana is currently home to three Minor League Baseball teams, all members of the Pioneer League: The two largest schools, the University of Montana and Montana State University , are members of the Big Sky Conference and have enjoyed a strong athletic rivalry since the early twentieth century.
A variety of sports are offered at Montana high schools. There are junior ice hockey teams in Montana, four of which are affiliated with the North American 3 Hockey League: Montana provides year-round outdoor recreation opportunities for residents and visitors.
Hiking, fishing, hunting, watercraft recreation, camping, golf, cycling, horseback riding, and skiing are popular activities.
Montana has been a destination for its world-class trout fisheries since the s. Montana is the home of the Federation of Fly Fishers and hosts many of the organizations annual conclaves.
The state has robust recreational lake trout and kokanee salmon fisheries in the west, walleye can be found in many parts of the state, while northern pike , smallmouth and largemouth bass fisheries as well as catfish and paddlefish can be found in the waters of eastern Montana.
Montana is home to the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation and has a historic big game hunting tradition. There are fall bow and general hunting seasons for elk , pronghorn antelope , whitetail deer and mule deer.
A random draw grants a limited number of permits for moose , mountain goats and bighorn sheep. There is a spring hunting season for black bear and in most years, limited hunting of bison that leave Yellowstone National Park is allowed.
Current law allows both hunting and trapping of a specific number of wolves and mountain lions. Trapping of assorted fur bearing animals is allowed in certain seasons and many opportunities exist for migratory waterfowl and upland bird hunting.
Both downhill skiing and cross-country skiing are popular in Montana, which has 15 developed downhill ski areas open to the public,  including:.
Big Sky Resort and Whitefish Mountain Resort are destination resorts , while the remaining areas do not have overnight lodging at the ski area, though several host restaurants and other amenities.
Montana also has millions of acres open to cross-country skiing on nine of its national forests plus in Glacier National Park.
In addition to cross-country trails at most of the downhill ski areas, there are also 13 private cross-country skiing resorts.
Snowmobiling is popular in Montana which boasts over miles of trails and frozen lakes available in winter. Montana is ranked as the least obese state in the U.
During the age of the Copper Kings , each Montana copper company had its own newspaper. This changed in when Lee Enterprises bought several Montana newspapers.
Railroads have been an important method of transportation in Montana since the s. Historically, the state was traversed by the main lines of three east-west transcontinental routes: Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport is the busiest airport in the state of Montana, surpassing Billings Logan International Airport in the spring of Eight smaller communities have airports designated for commercial service under the Essential Air Service program.
Route 10 was the primary east-west highway route across Montana, connecting the major cities in the southern half of the state. Routes 2 and 12 and Montana Highway also traverse the entire state from east to west.
Other major north-south highways include U. Routes 87 , 89 , 93 and Montana and South Dakota are the only states to share a land border which is not traversed by a paved road.
Highway , the primary paved route between the two, passes through the northeast corner of Wyoming between Montana and South Dakota.
Montana is governed by a constitution. The first constitution was drafted by a constitutional convention in , in preparation for statehood.
Ninety percent of its language came from an constitution which was never acted upon by Congress for national political reasons.
The constitution mimicked the structure of the United States Constitution , as well as outlining almost the same civil and political rights for citizens.
However, the Montana constitution significantly restricted the power of state government, the legislature was much more powerful than the executive branch, and the jurisdiction of the District Courts very specifically described.
In , Montana voters approved the call for a state constitutional convention. A new constitution was drafted, which made the legislative and executive branches much more equal in power and which was much less prescriptive in outlining powers, duties, and jurisdictions.
The constitution was narrowly approved, , to ,, and declared ratified on June 20, Three issues which the constitutional convention were unable to resolve were submitted to voters simultaneously with the proposed constitution.
Voters approved the legalization of gambling, a bicameral legislature, and retention of the death penalty.
The constitution has been amended 31 times as of Extensive new constitutional rights for victims of crime were approved in The constitution requires that voters determine every 20 years whether to hold a new constitutional convention.
Voters turned down a new convention in 84 percent no  and again in Montana has three branches of state government: Legislative, executive, and judicial.
The executive branch is headed by an elected governor. The current Governor is Steve Bullock , a Democrat elected in There are nine other statewide elected offices in the executive branch as well: There are five Public Service Commissioners, who are elected on a regional basis.
There are 18 departments and offices which make up the executive branch: Elementary and secondary education are overseen by the Office of Public Instruction led by the elected Superintendent of Public Instruction , in cooperation with the governor-appointed Board of Public Education.
Higher education is overseen by a governor-appointed Board of Regents, which in turn appoints a Commissioner of Higher Education.
The Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education acts in an executive capacity on behalf of the regents, and oversees the state-run Montana University System.
Montana is an Alcoholic beverage control state. It is one of five states to have no sales tax. The Montana Legislature is bicameral, and consists of the member Montana Senate and the member Montana House of Representatives.
The legislature meets in the Montana State Capitol in Helena in odd-numbered years for 90 days, beginning the first weekday of the year.
The deadline for a legislator to introduce a general bill is the 40th legislative day. The deadline for a legislator to introduce an appropriations, revenue, or referenda bill is the 62nd legislative day.
Senators serve four-year terms, while Representatives serve two-year terms. All members are limited to serving no more than eight years in a single year period.
The Courts of Montana are established by the Constitution of Montana. The constitution requires the establishment of a Montana Supreme Court and Montana District Courts , and permits the legislature to establish Justice Courts , City Courts , Municipal Courts , and other inferior courts such as the legislature sees fit to establish.
The Montana Supreme Court is the court of last resort in the Montana court system. The constitution of provided for the election of no fewer than three Supreme Court justices, and one Chief Justice.
Each court member served a six-year term. The legislature increased the number of justices to five in The constitution lengthened the term of office to eight years, and established the minimum number of justices at five.
It allowed the legislature to increase the number of justices by two, which the legislature did in The Montana Supreme Court has the authority to declare acts of the legislature and executive unconstitutional under either the Montana or U.
Its decisions may be appealed directly to the U. The Clerk of the Supreme Court is also an elected position, and serves a six-year term.
Neither justices nor the clerk are term limited. Montana District Courts are the courts of general jurisdiction in Montana. There are no intermediate appellate courts.
District Courts have jurisdiction primarily over most civil cases, cases involving a monetary claim against the state, felony criminal cases, probate, and cases at law and in equity.
When so authorized by the legislature, actions of executive branch agencies may be appealed directly to a District Court.
The District Courts also have de novo appellate jurisdiction from inferior courts city courts, justice courts, and municipal courts , and oversee naturalization proceedings.
District Court judges are elected, and serve six-year terms. They are not term limited. There are 22 judicial districts in Montana, served by 56 District Courts and 46 District Court judges.
The District Courts suffer from excessive workload, and the legislature has struggled to find a solution to the problem.
They are overseen by District Court judges. They consist of a chief probation officer, one or more juvenile probation officers, and support staff.
Youth Courts have jurisdiction over misdemeanor and felony acts committed by those charged as a juvenile under the law. There is a Youth Court in every judicial district, and decisions of the Youth Court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court.
It has a single judge, appointed by the governor. Decisions of the court are appealable directly to the Montana Supreme Court. The court employs 12 permanent special masters.
The Water Court adjudicates water rights claims under the Montana Water Use Act of , and has statewide jurisdiction. District Courts have the authority to enforce decisions of the Water Court, but only the Montana Supreme Court has the authority to review decisions of the Water Court.
From to , elections for judicial office in Montana were partisan. Beginning in , these elections became nonpartisan.
The Montana Supreme Court struck down the nonpartisan law in on technical grounds, but a new law was enacted in which barred political parties from endorsing, making contributions to, or making expenditures on behalf of or against judicial candidates.
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